Improvement proposals are publically published technical documents that are a collection of suggestions for updates to the core client. BIP(Bitcoin Improvement Proposal) for Bitcoin or EIP(Ethereum Improvement Proposal) for Ethereum.
An Initial Coin Offering(ICO) takes place when new projects offer their coin or token to investors most commonly in exchange for Bitcoin or Ethereum. An ICO helps raise funds for the project.
Inspired by blockchain technology, InterPlanetary File System intends to connect every computer device to a single system of files with everyone having access to a single repository of media: from text files to videos. IPFS functions through a peer-to-peer distributed system and, content-addressable: which means that information is retrievable by its content, not its location.
Investors expend their money into some asset form with the intention to gain capital. Each investor has a risk tolerance which may drive their decision on what their investment should be. An investor has a litany of options in today's economy: from rare objects, stocks, bonds, to even cryptocurrency.