A legal and regulatory measure, often required, to prevent money laundering. Anti-money laundering measures are especially necessary for the cryptocurrency space since transactions and currency holdings may be completely anonymous.
A decentralized, trustless mechanism that allows individuals to exchange one cryptocurrency for another between blockchains through the use of a smart contract. Atomic swaps are peer-to-peer where the smart contract acts to prevent a malicious party from taking currency from the person who initiates the deal.
In trading, it is the act of measuring the performance of one asset by comparing it to another. In computer science, a benchmark is a process of assessing a computer or program's performance using a battery of standard tests.
Bitcoin is most known for being the first cryptocurrency and blockchain officially released in 2009. Bitcoin as defined by its creator Satoshi Nakamoto: “a purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution… We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network.” https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf