Often associated with cryptocurrency mining, application-specific integrated circuits is an individual or multiple microchip computational system designed for a single purpose or application. Concerning cryptocurrency, ASICs are designed to solve complex hash algorithms to unlock a block of recent transactions, writing it to the chain.
A decentralized, trustless mechanism that allows individuals to exchange one cryptocurrency for another between blockchains through the use of a smart contract. Atomic swaps are peer-to-peer where the smart contract acts to prevent a malicious party from taking currency from the person who initiates the deal.
Bitcoin is most known for being the first cryptocurrency and blockchain officially released in 2009. Bitcoin as defined by its creator Satoshi Nakamoto: “a purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution… We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network.” https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf